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preferential procurement

Nigeria approves N33bn intervention fund for meter procurement


Nigerian Tribune

by Gbola Subair

The acute shortage of electricity meters in the country will soon be a thing of the past as the Presidency has approved the sum of N33 billion intervention fund for its procurement.

The fund, which attracts a very low interest rate, will be made available to Distribution Companies (DISCOs) to buy meters and other electricity accessories with a view to bridging the meter deficit gap which is about three million yearly.

The Director-General of the Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE), Mr Benjamin Ezra Dikki, speaking in Abuja, also gave an assurance that the fixed charge currently borne by electricity consumers in the country would be dispensed with as soon as power generation increases to an economically sustainable level.

The director-general, who said the fixed charge was a temporary measure, appealed to electricity consumers to bear the burden, as it would soon be abolished, noting that the country had an installed power capacity of 6,000 megawatts, but was generating only about 3,000 to 4,000 megawatts. 

The BPE boss stated that the revenue from the 3,000 megawatts was not sufficient to support the power infrastructure.

”When power generation increases, the fixed charge will go,” he maintained.

According to him, it was the initial sacrifice consumers had to make given the huge financial investment made by the new power investors who are yet to obtain adequate returns on their investments.

Dikki added that as what obtained at the initial stages of the reform in the telecoms sector, when the cost of   the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards and telephone handsets was as high as N50,000 per SIM, “the electricity fixed charge will also crash.”

Dikki debunked claims of lack of transparency in the privatisation of Kaduna Electricity Distribution Company (KEDC) and the picture created of a conflict between Geometrics Power Group and Interstate Electrics Ltd, the core investor of Enugu Distribution Company.

On KEDC, he said the reserved bidder could only be invited to step in if the preferred bidder failed to pay.

He added that the preferred bidder was, within the time limit, to pay the 75 per cent balance of the bid price after an initial payment of 25 per cent had been made.

The director-general said it was wrong for anybody to call for the revocation of the sale, as the process had to complete before reversion to the reserved bidder could be made.

On Geometrics, Dikki explained that it had a 20-year contract with the Enugu Distribution Company to supply power to the Aba and Ariaria districts, which is not in contention.

“Both parties are aware of this but it baffles me when people go out to deliberately distort the facts. We don’t understand the hue and cry that Geometrics is short-changed in the transaction,” he said.

New Reports Measuring Gender, Trade, and Public Procurement Policy


AllAfrica.com

25 SEPTEMBER 2013

PRESS RELEASE

The World Bank and Commonwealth Secretariat launched two new publications this week centering on women in business.

‘Women, Business and the Law 2014’ measures how national laws, regulations and institutions differentiate between women and men in ways that may affect women’s capacity to work or set up and run businesses.

The report was launched by the World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC) at the Commonwealth Secretariat’s headquarters in London on Tuesday, 24 September.

Dr Augusto Lopez-Claros, Director of Global Indicators and Analysis at the World Bank and IFC said: “In 79 countries the law restricts the types of jobs that women can do. These jobs are often in industries that are higher paying and that creates a pay gap. In the twenty-first century many of these restrictions no longer make sense.”

The Secretariat also presented ‘Gender, Trade and Public Procurement Policy‘, which focuses on how policies for procuring goods and services for government departments can be used effectively to enhance business opportunities for women.

The procurement market often makes up to 10-15% of the GDP of developed countries and can amount for as much as 30-40% of GDP of developing countries. The report looks at how public procurement policies can be used as a tool to open up the market to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), including women’s businesses, which are often in the informal sector.

It includes case studies and lessons from four Commonwealth countries: Australia, India, Jamaica and Kenya.

Interim Director in charge of Gender, Health and Education at the Secretariat, Esther Eghobamien said: “The research has demonstrated the impact of public procurement policy as a vehicle for enhancing opportunities for SMEs and women-owned business. Any growth in that sector will translate into real gains for women living below the poverty line.”

Kenya: Youths, Women, PWDs to Benefit From New Procurement Rules


AllAfrica.com

By Capt. (RTD) Collins Wanderi

OPINION

On 18th June 2013 the Cabinet Secretary for the National Treasury published the Public Procurement (Preference & Reservations) (Amendment) Regulations 2013.

The objective of these regulations is to accord the youth and other disadvantaged groups in Kenya preference in the supply of goods and services to the government. This is in line with one of the key promises of the Jubilee government to give the youth, persons with disability (PWDS) and women at least 30 percent of all supply contracts to the government.

The significance of these regulations is that the National Treasury and all the Treasuries in the 47 county governments shall be required to register and maintain a database for all Small or Micro-Enterprises (SME) or disadvantaged groups that wish to participate in public procurement.

The regulations also seek to favour local businesses by granting exclusive preference to local contractors who supply motor vehicles, electrical goods, furniture and other items which are fully assembled or manufactured in Kenya. Road works and electrical installations of below Sh1 billion, other public works of below Sh500 million and supply of goods and services of below Sh100 million and Sh50 million respectively are now exclusively reserved for Kenyans.

When these regulations come into effect the government and all its agencies will inevitably become the largest promoters of the motto, “buy Kenyan, build Kenya”.

The regulations also make it possible for procuring entities to divide supplies in lots of goods, works and services into practicable quantities which the youth, SMEs and other disadvantaged groups can afford. A new Regulation 31 enjoins the National, County governments and other agencies of government to allocate at least 30 percent of their procurement to the youth, SMEs and other disadvantaged groups.

To enhance compliance with this regulation these procuring entities will now be required to make budgets, issue tender notices and award contracts with at least 30pc participation by the youth, SMEs and other disadvantaged groups. They will also be required to submit quarterly reports to the Public Procurement Oversight Authority for compliance audits.

To participate in the new preferred and reserved public procurement scheme, the youth, women, persons with disability, SMEs and other disadvantaged groups are required to register their enterprises with the relevant government body e.g Registrar of Companies, Business Names, CBOs, NGOs etc.

The membership of such registered bodies may have 30 percent members at most who are not youth, women or PWD but their leadership must be 100 percent youth, women or PWD. Procuring entities will be required to pay for supplies made under this scheme within 30 days. A delay beyond 30 days requires the entity to make 50 percent part-payment and explain the delay in writing.

Regulation 33 which deals with financing is of great importance. While young people often have the benefit of fresh ideas, energy and vigour they are seriously deprived while in competition with older people who have the advantage of time, experience and money. Procuring entities will be required to authenticate Tender Awards and Local Purchase or Service Orders (LPOs & LSOs) and enter into agreements with relevant financing institutions with an undertaking that the contracted enterprise will be paid through the account opened with the financier.

Banks, Deposit Taking Microfinance Institutions (DTMs) and other lenders licensed by the Central Bank of Kenya must also come up with very innovative ways to help the government, the youth, PWDs, Women and other disadvantaged groups achieve the objectives of the new regulations.

The youth, women and PWDs need these contracts but on the other hand government agencies require assurance that the contracted enterprises will perform their part of the bargain and with the requisite skill and expertise. One method to ensure satisfaction of reserved and preferred public procurement contracts may be through the doctrine of cession which is widely used in South Africa.

The law has created a new spectrum of proprietary rights for the youth, PWDs & women by dint of their status in society. These rights are exclusive, reserved and can be quantified in economic and monetary value once a procuring entity has authenticated a tender award and issued an LPO or LSO.

Once an enterprise owned by the youth, PWDs or women gets a contract to perform certain obligations for the procuring entity, such an enterprise acquires a right of claim for payment in anticipation by virtue of regulation 33. Consequently in terms of the doctrine of cession in anticipado, the future right to claim payment may be ceded. This way the youth, PWDs and Women owned enterprises (cedent) would retain ownership of the contractual rights but only surrender to a limited degree the ability to enforce those rights.

An agreement to cede would be in writing and a formal document known as the Instrument of Cession will have to be executed. A cession as opposed to delegation or sub-contracting would be the best method to facilitate access to finance and specialist expertise by the youth, women and PWDs who want to benefit from the preferred and reserved public procurement under the new regulations.

Wanderi is the chairman-Kenya Institute of Forensic Auditors (KeIFA)

SA sets up infrastructure to verify local-content claims


Engineering News

July 5, 2013

A new technical instrument has been introduced to support South Africa’s strategy of increasing the level of local content in the goods and services procured by government and State-owned entities and to add impetus to the country’s re-industrialisation efforts.

The tool in question is a South African Technical Specification (SATS) 1286, which will be administered by a new Local Content Verification Office housed within the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS).

Trade and Industry Minister Dr Rob Davies, who presided over the official launch on Friday, says SATS 1286 sets objective criteria for the issuance of an audited ‘Local Content Certificate’.

The verification process follows on from the initial ‘designation’ of products and services that are required to incorporate minimum thresholds of local content before they can be procured by national and provincial State departments, municipalities and State-owned companies. The requirement is supported by updated Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act (PPPFA) regulations, issued in December 2011.

The current thresholds range from 100% for textile, clothing and footwear procured for government-issued uniforms to 30% for digital television set-top boxes. But Davies stressed that these thresholds should be regarded as a “floor rather than a ceiling”.

The initial designations announced by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) cover rail rolling stock, electrical pylons, textile, clothing and footwear, canned or processed vegetables, some oral solid-dose pharmaceutical products, digital television set-top boxes, furniture, solar geysers and power and telecommunications cables.

But further rounds of designations will be introduced in future, following research and consultations.

SABS CEO Boni Mehlomakulu says the infrastructure is in place for the organisation to conduct the verification process, which will be required only for entities that win government tenders.

The process involves a self-assessment by the company that is delivered to the SABS in the form of a local content-declaration. A team of auditors then conducts an analysis of the documentation to verify the declaration, which is followed but a factory visit by a separate team of auditors. A consolidated document is then sent through to an approval board, which makes a final recommendation to the CEO, who issues the verification certificate. The costs of the process will be born by the winning bidder.

Mehlomakulu believes that multi-step process, which involves separate teams of auditors, has materially reduced the potential for fraud and corruption, but stresses that the SABS also operates an ethics hotline should an individual have concerns. The objective criteria employed also reduce scope for discretion, which tends to contaminate the administration of regulations.

Davies argues that there is significant potential to increase the domestic job creation around government procurement generally and also the multibillion-rand public infrastructure programme. However, without mechanisms to verify local-content claims the impact of ‘buy local’ initiatives could be diluted.

“We now have a standard and the infrastructure in place to verify,” he says, adding that breaches could lead to penalties and even the cancellation of contracts.

 

Namibia: Public Procurement Bleeds Namibia


AllAfrica.com

By EDGAR BRANDT, 2 MAY 2013

Windhoek — Despite a significant increase in public expenditure, public procurement has not brought about the desired outcomes, such as increased employment, improvement in the distribution of economic opportunities, enterprise development and economic growth and development, the Minister of Finance, Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila, told a Tender Board meeting held recently in Windhoek.

According to the finance minister the desired outcomes have not been reached for the most part because of leakages out of the economy. “Many tenders are awarded to foreign companies even where local companies have the capacity to perform these tenders. Goods and services procured under these contracts are sourced from outside, and too many expatriates perform work on the projects under these contracts even where locals have the skills to do so. So resources leak out of the Namibian economy as a result of this and opportunities for learning and enterprise development are forfeited,” said Kuugongelwa-Amadhila.

She added that setting tenders aside for local companies and special target groups such as women and youth for economic empowerment could address these challenges.

Additional tools recommended by Kuugongelwa-Amadhila to address these issues include a policy that some tenders should require mandatory sole contracting of Namibian companies and SME‘s, that there should be requirements for local participation in all companies to be awarded tenders and that there should be a mandatory requirement for sourcing of supplies and labour services from within Namibia.

With specific regard to procurement, the finance minister noted there is a significant increase in expectations from the public for the system to help the country overcome the challenges of unemployment and inequities and to support sustainable economic growth. With public expenditure having increased significantly in the recent past, the government’s role in the economy has grown much bigger. “We should also put in place monitoring and evaluation systems to ensure that compliance with bidding commitments are enforced and that the impact of the procurement programmes is evaluated. Companies that fail to honour their bidding commitments should be held to account,” said Kuugongelwa-Amadhila, adding that the current allegations of corruption and court challenges against the decisions of the board do not augur well for the public image of the board.

Also, she encouraged the Tender Board to look at ways to delegate the adjudication of some tenders to state-owned enterprises, local authorities and regional authorities.

She also revealed that a dedicated procurement reform project office has been set up and recruitment of staff is in progress. “The office will help drive the reform process including assisting with the drafting of the regulations for the new (tender) law once passed, and operational guidelines, as well as the setting up of the procurement advisory office and the new secretariat. I encourage the board to ponder on all the challenges and ways and means of overcoming them,” concluded Kuugongelwa-Amadhila.

Ghana: Government Urged To Implement Sustainable Public Procurement Policy


Mr. Samuel Sallas-Mensah - CEO of Public Procurement Authority

Mr. Samuel Sallas-Mensah – CEO of Public Procurement Authority

Mr Samuel Sallas-Mensah, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Public Procurement Authority (PPA) has appealed to government and procurement practitioners to embrace and implement Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) policy.

He said SPP factored economic, social and environmental impacts in procurement decision making which would ensure effective sustainable development.

The CEO was speaking at an opening session of a five-day pilot training for procurement practitioners on SPP in Koforidua on Monday,

“Waste management and economic use of resources are some obvious challenges we face and sustainable public procurement can help address them to a large extent,” he said.

Mr Sallas-Mensah said the SPP makes room for increased participation of women entrepreneurs in government procurement processes which would be a boost for national economic growth and for their immediate families as well as their communities.

“A policy that seeks to improve incomes for women businesses through government contracts is a wise one and must be embraced since it results in poverty alleviation and wealth creation,” he said.

Mr Sallas-Mensah appealed to the government to set aside a percentage of all its contracts for Small Scale and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to enable Women-Owned Small Businesses (WOSBs) to have a quota.

In her welcoming address, Nadia Balgoben, the Swiss Representative, implored Ghana’s policy makers and procurement practitioners to take the training serious and make it a point to implement the SPP policy for the country to attain full sustainable development.

Mr John Afari Idan, CEO of Biogas Technologies Africa Limited, reminded the participants of the need to understand that their role in public procurement is not all about buying but adding value to what they buy.

The pilot training is a collaborative effort between the Government of the Swiss, to train procurement practitioners and policy makers in the public sector in order to strengthen their monitoring and evaluation capabilities which would in turn foster sustainable development.

Source: GNA

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  2. Ghana prepares draft amendments of Public Procurement Act
  3. Ghana As From 2014 Will Operate An Electronic Procurement System
  4. PPA reveals non-compliance of public procurement law
  5. Public Procurement Act Is A Tool To Fight Corruption
  6. Government to implement strategies for public sector reform
  7. Sallas-Mensah joins Advisory Group
  8. Local firms urged to develop CSR for sustainable national development
  9. ISD And IPR Trains Government’s Public Relations Officers In Various Ministries
  10. Public-private partnership policy approved
  11. Gov’t urged to continue implementation of National Youth Policy
  12. Ghana to undertake over $1.5b ambitious projects under public-private partnership policy
  13. Ghana government approves new forest, wildlife policy
  14. Government to implement inclusive education in 2015-Minister
  15. Government to use Public Private Partnership for low-cost efficient service delivery.
  16. Ghana begins electronic procurement system 2014 (ghanabusinessnews.com)

South Africa: Gordhan’s war on incompetence and impunity


Mail & Guardian

By Faranaaz Parker

July 24, 2012

Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan has revealed plans for the national treasury to take a much tighter grip on local governments‘ finances. See the full report here.

Following the release of a damning report on the scale of mismanagement at municipal levels, Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan on Monday revealed that the national treasury would take a tighter grip on procurement processes across the country.

Gordhan announced that treasury would create a procurement oversight unit to actively enforce supply chain management at a national level and would shortly appoint a chief procurement officer. The position would be advertised in two weeks and would be established within the next two months.

“Where there are transactions for a particular size or type within the national domain there must be the ability to assess whether they meet market criteria in terms of prices [and] whether proper processes havebeen followed,” he said.

The announcement was an indictment of local government’s failure to spend and account for public money effectively.

The minister was speaking at the release of auditor general Terence Nombembe’s report on local government audit results, which showed that only 5% of all municipal entities – a total of 13 – had achieved clean audits for the year 2010/2011.

Gordhan said IT systems would be developed to allow the treasury to actively monitor compliance with financial management requirements so that it may demand information regarding procurements, such as how decisions were made and by whom.

Spending fiascos

The move may help prevent public spending fiascos such as the multibillion-rand leasing scandal that saw former police chief Bheki Cele and former public works minister Gwen Mahlangu-Nkabinde sacked last year.

Gordhan said the government should be able to demonstrate that there were consequences for nonperformance and for working outside the law.

“At the moment, those consequences are not there. When consequences are not there continuously then a level of impunity develops,” he said.

He said the new oversight mechanism would require the help of law enforcement agencies, who would bear the responsibility of preparing cases against and prosecuting those guilty of corruption.

With reference to the auditor general’s report, Gordhan said he was particularly disappointed that some large metros, which had better skills and capacity than small municipalities, did not received clean audits.

“If they can’t meet simple criteria in financial management, then it’s a matter the treasury has to take a closer look at,” he said.

Nombembe’s damning report
Nombembe’s report showed there were three root causes behind the slow progress towards clean audits in local government.

The biggest problem, he said, was a general lack of consequence for poor performance. Modified audit results were simply considered the norm, he said.

In addition, over 70% of those audited did not have the minimum competencies and skills required to perform their jobs.

Worryingly, over half of the municipalities audited were slow in responding to the auditor general’s suggestions and were not taking ownership of key financial controls.

Nombembe said if these issues were not addressed, they would continue to weaken governance.

He also complained that most municipalities employed consultants in areas where they already had people to do the work, and even then the results were not as good as they should be.

Cedric Frolick, National Assembly house chairperson, agreed, saying: “What are the employees doing when 70% of the work is being done by people who must be paid for it on top of their salaries?”

“Why are people who are not doing their job, being allowed to keep on [not] doing it?”

Meeting the criteria
But Minister in the Presidency responsible for performance, monitoring and evaluation Collins Chabane said because of the way the three spheres of government were structured, it was difficult to make interventions in local government unless specific criteria had been met.

“It creates a complication where no other authority can intervene, by law, until that municipality makes a decision,” he said.

Chabane said in future, the performance of departments and institutions may be linked to the performance of the heads of those institutions.

“That will begin to bring accountability,” he said.

Meanwhile Subesh Pillay, chairperson of the South African Local Government Association, said it was important to remember that clean audits were a means to an end.

“That end is to ensure that local government become efficient and effective organs of service delivery,” he said.

South Africa: Government releases its Mid Term Review


7th Space

Compiled by the Government Communication and Information System
Jun 1, 2012

Pretoria – Government has officially released its Mid Term Review Report, which provides progress on the implementation of the commitments it has made.

November 2011 marked the mid-point of the 2009-2014 electoral term of the current administration and in line with that, the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation carried out a Mid Term Review of government.

The report was released by Minister in the Presidency Collins Chabane, in Pretoria, on Friday.

The review focuses on government’s progress against the delivery agreements for the 12 outcomes. The outcomes are focused on national priorities such as education, health, crime and corruption, jobs and rural development.

The Department for Performance Monitoring and Evaluation has been monitoring progress on the implementation of the delivery agreements for the outcomes and reporting quarterly to Cabinet and the President.

Speaking about government’s priority of creating jobs, Chabane said although sufficient jobs were not created to meet the demand, government has made significant advances in the coordination of growth strategies, the New Growth Path and Stakeholder agreements.

“We have made progress with labour absorbing industrial development strategies in manufacturing, mineral products, procurement reform and the Jobs Fund. We have also made progress with improving competitiveness and reducing costs in minerals beneficiation, automotives and clothing.”

According to the report, significant procurement reforms to promote employment were achieved in 2011 with South Africa recording possibly up to 350 000 jobs in the course of the year.
However, the report notes, employment levels were still below those of 2008, before the recession with the current employment ration still well below the modest target of 45% by 2014.

The report notes that the Jobs Fund, announced by President Jacob Zuma last year, had committed only R425 million of its R2 billion budget for 2011/12.

The task of coordinating job creation initiatives across departments has proven to be challenging, resulting in slow implementation of decisions, especially where complex coordination is involved.

The report cites the problem of youth unemployment as among serious challenges facing the country.

“Government is taking a multi-pronged approach to youth employment. In addition to plans to stimulate higher growth that supports more entry-level employment opportunities, the strategy includes improved and affordable education, especially for young people from poor households; expansion in further and higher education and training; improved health care, with targeted programmes on teen pregnancy; early childhood development; and HIV and AIDS and career guidance and counselling,” reads the report.

It said a youth employment incentive, which is currently under discussion at the National Economic Development and Labour Council, had been proposed.

The National Youth Development Agency (NYDA) was in the process of finalising the National Youth Development Plan and the Integrated Youth Development Strategy for Cabinet, which focus on employment creation and economic participation by the youth. NYDA is said to have helped create 18 048 jobs in 2010/11.

During his State of the Nation Address earlier this year, President Zuma announced that the Industrial Development Cooperation (IDC) had by February this year approved R1.5 billion for 60 companies to promote job creation. This was part of the R10 billion set aside by the IDC for job creation.

With regard to increasing competitiveness, the report points to definite progress in the implementation of the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), and jobs drivers in some sectors, including minerals beneficiation, autos and clothing.

It highlights key developments in green growth through the implementation of a solar water heater programme and through commitments on renewable energy in the independent power producer (IPP) process.

Over 8 500 solar geysers were installed across South Africa during the two-week UN climate summit held in Durban with government targeting one million homes by 2014.

Reported by: South African Government News Service.

South Africa: Public Works to boost technical skills base


7th Space

Compiled by the Government Communication and Information System
Date: 21 May 2012
Title: Public Works to boost technical skills base
——————–

Pretoria – The Department of Public Works is set to invest more funds in developing in-house technical capacity, which in the long run will help it to save money that is currently paid to consultants.

This emerged after Minister Thulasi Nxesi met with Public Works MECs in Johannesburg over the weekend to develop strategies to enhance service delivery.

Among the issues discussed was the need to address the lack of professional and technical skills, given the fact that Public Works is a highly technical department.

This, according to the department, means recruiting from the private sector, as well as inserting clauses into construction contracts to require contractors to train young engineers and artisans. The department will determine the minimum basket of skills required nationally and provincially.

The discussions also centred on developing and capacitating emerging black construction contractors, whilst strengthening sanctions – including blacklisting – against non-performing contractors to enhance service delivery.

Also taking part in the meeting was the Construction Industry Development Board (CIBD) – a public entity which reports to the Minister of Public Works. CIBD is concurrently reviewing the regulatory framework to ensure it enhances, rather than inhibits, contractor development.

The meeting also explored the use of alternative construction methods (ACMs) to tackle the issue of mud schools. Pilot schemes have been completed in the Eastern Cape and North West provinces.

These methods produce buildings that in most instances are better than conventional buildings, in that they are more sustainable, cheaper and quicker to erect.

Nxesi also explained the implications of the recently announced national infrastructure roll out plans.

“The effective roll out of the Strategic Integrated Projects (SIPs) … the revitalisation of health facilities and the national school building programme, require that Public Works, nationally and provincially, together with client departments, local authorities and implementing bodies work closely together to ensure effective delivery.

“This means maximum coordination and changing the way we work to reduce delays and cut through the bureaucracy. The roll out of health and education infrastructure will also stimulate further economic activity in communities and job creation,” said Nxesi.

Professor Shadrack Gutto, constitutional law expert and public policy commentator, was invited to present a legal opinion and research findings on the application of cooperative governance and concurrent mandates, concepts which are central to improving coordination between the spheres of government.

He concluded that whilst minor legislative or regulatory changes might be necessary, much could be done administratively to strengthen coordination between the spheres, including developing a memorandum of understanding to clarify roles and responsibilities.

A resolution was taken to, among other things, request Professor Gutto to undertake further research, whilst joint structures are established to identify the areas that need to be covered in a memorandum of understanding and to encourage greater cooperation and interaction between provinces to share experiences and best practices.

As examples, the MEC of the Eastern Cape – where ACMs have been used to replace mud schools – invited other provinces to visit these schools, whilst the Western and Northern Cape provinces discussed cooperation to address skills deficits.

The national department will also coordinate with provincial departments to further enhance reliability of the Immovable Assets Register of state assets.

Reported by: South African Government News Service

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