Africa's Public Procurement & Entrepreneurship Research Initiative – APPERI



Ugandan Head of Health Procurement Dismissed over Alleged Bribe

State House of Uganda

August 22, 2014

President Yoweri Museveni has directed the Permanent Secretary Ministry of Health Permanent Secretary, Asuman Lukwago, to dismiss the Head of Procurement, Frank Mugisha, for allegedly asking for a bribe from an Italian investor.

The President’s directive follows a complaint from Enrica M. Pinetti the chairman of Finasi Company that Mugisha had asked for a bribe of 20% of the total project she was handling in order to finalize the procurement processes.

Finasi, founded in the early 1970s is an Import/Export and primary goods trader in the Middle East and Africa. It has innovated and developed specific know-how in the Healthcare, Oil and Gas, Interiors and organic food fields delivering value-added services to its clients.

The company is a global turnkey provider for Healthcare facilities, projects and supplies.

Other countries where it has been carrying out similar projects includes Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Russia and Dubai.

In a meeting that took place yesterday, between President Museveni, Ministry officials and the Investors at State House Entebbe, the President directed that Mugisha be removed with immediate effect and be replaced with a devoted civil servant who cannot steal.

‘‘How can you keep a thief in the Ministry? And how are you going to counsel a thief? A thief is a thief. He should be removed,” he said.

The President pointed out that the coming of the Finasi Company to Uganda was at his request to build a first class hospital that will be dealing with complicated problems such as kidney and heart operations.

“I requested them to come to Uganda to deal with kidney and heart problems so that people stop travelling to India for treatment,” he said.

The President also directed the Ministry to iron out its differences with the investor in two weeks and pave way for the project.

According to a report from the Minister of Health Dr. Rukahana Rugunda to the President, Mugisha formerly worked with the Ministry of Agriculture before being transferred to the Health Ministry were he has been for nine months.

Ms Enrica Pinetti also behind efforts to add value to Uganda’s coffee for export as powder is pleased by President Museveni’s action.

Faith-based health services as an alternative to privatization? A Ugandan case study

Municipal Services Project


This study examines the delivery of health services by faith-based organizations (FBOs) as a possible alternative to privatization in Uganda, where these not-for-profit health providers have been servicing communities since the mid-19th century. Their facilities focus on primary care and operate in rural, under-serviced areas where they provide access to care without discrimination on the basis of religion or ethnic group, charging affordable user fees while also treating those who cannot pay.

Based on literature reviews and more than 30 key informant interviews, this research finds that FBOs promote solidarity through multi-stakeholder engagement and through cross-subsidization using mechanisms such as community health financing schemes that protect patients from catastrophic health expenditure. Thus, this ‘private not-for-profit’ sector fosters the development of a strong quasi-public ethos in service delivery, especially at the primary level of the Ugandan health system.

FBOs are key health policy implementation partners, receiving 7 per cent of the national health budget to offer services guided by the National Health Plan. The sector presently contributes to more than a quarter of all health services, including the training of health professionals. The various denominations’ medical bureaus also participate in policy formulation, planning and priority setting for the health sector.

Today, the sector faces challenges in attracting and retaining staff, and resource constraints due to reduced external funding following the global financial crisis. Yet they may be considered successful alternatives to privatization on the dimensions of equity, solidarity, quality of services, quality of the workplace, participation and transparency.

Download the paper.


Procurement irregularities and over-pricing in Madagascar

by David Garmaise

January 8, 2014

Suppliers alleged to have colluded on bids

An investigation by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) into procurement contracts for five malaria grants to Madagascar has found evidence of non-compliant expenditures, over-priced goods and collusion among suppliers. A report on the investigation was released on 3 January.

Procurement activities from four Round 9 grants under investigation involved two government and two non-government bodies: the central support office for health sector projects (UGP: Unité de Gestion des Projets d’Appui au Secteur de Santé ) and the central governments health products procurement office (SALAMA: Centre d’Achats de Médicaments et de Matériel Médical); Pact and the Madagascar intercooperation association (AIM: Association Intercoopération Madagascar). Procurement activities under a Round 7 grant were also investigated, with UGP as the PR.

By April 2012, when the investigation was launched, some $70.8 million had been disbursed over the five grants; expenditures of $12.2 million were examined.

The investigation has implicated three of the four PRs in non-compliant expenditures worth some $1.1 million, including $462,670 in over-pricing; only AIM was exonerated for any suspect spending.

Table: Summary of non-compliant expenditures and amounts of over-pricing identified by the OIG

PR Grant

Disbursed as of 30 April 2012

Reviewed by the OIG

Amount of non-compliant expenditures

Of which, amount of over-pricing

UGP MDG-910-G17-M


$6.0 m.





Pact MDG-910-G19-M


$1.4 m.





$ 2.3 m.



AIM MDG-910-G18-M


$2.5 m.





$12.2 m.




With respect to the grants administered by UGP, the OIG uncovered evidence that groups of vendors colluded and submitted bids for procurement contracts that had not been independently prepared. In a restricted national tender launched by UGP in 2010 for supplies and equipment for an indoor residual spraying campaign, the OIG found that contracts worth $640,146 were compromised; of this amount, slightly more than half was charged at above-market rates.

Such practices needed the collusion of a procurement unit official, according to the OIG.

The grant administered by Pact required the PR to use SALAMA as a procurement agent. During 2011–2012, Pact entered into three contracts with SALAMA. The OIG found that two of the contracts – $270,643 for laboratory equipment and $29,029 for rapid diagnostic tests – were overpriced by $74,464 in total. The OIG said that Pact exercised insufficient oversight of the contracting process with SALAMA. However, the OIG acknowledged that Pact undertook corrective measures shortly after the issue was raised, and managed to recover some of the excess.

With respect to the grant for which SALAMA was PR, the OIG said that in January 2011, a contract was awarded for $17,068 to IDA Foundation to supply an anti-malarial medicine manufactured by REMEDICA, a supplier approved by the World Health Organization.

However, the medicines actually delivered by IDA and distributed by SALAMA were produced by another manufacturer, Guilin Pharmaceuticals, which was not an approved supplier, resulting in an overcharge of roughly $5,000.  IDA has since committed to refund the excess charges.

The OIG found fault with SALAMA, IDA and the local fund agent (LFA) for the fact that the wrong drugs were distributed to patients.

An annex to the report included detailed comments from the UGP, Pact and SALAMA on an earlier draft of the report. These comments prompted changes to the final report.

In an attached letter, the Global Fund’s executive director, Mark Dybul, said that the Secretariat has moved to respond to the findings, including limiting the scope of the grants to essential malaria activities; suspending the signing of Phase 2 of the UGP NSA grant; moving to 100% verification by the LFA; and requiring pooled procurement for most commodities. SALAMA has also been removed as a PR, and its grant is in closure. A recovery plan should be in place by March 2014, Dybul added.

Separately, the OIG said it had been advised of the findings of a forensic audit commissioned by Pact and conducted on one of Pact’s sub-recipients. The OIG said that the audit identified procurement irregularities, which will be followed-up directly by the Global Fund Secretariat.

The report of the OIG investigation can be found on the Global Fund website here.

World Bank Advised Ethiopia to Audit Large Telecom Agreements

Business Ethiopia


January 11, 2013

The World Bank (WB) in its report on the status of corruption in Ethiopia advised the government to audit Ethio Telecom’s large agreements. 

According to the report launched this morning at the Hilton Addis, focusing on the level of corruption in the country in different sector sectors, the government needs to apply standards to Ethio Telecom that are in line with Ethiopia’s Public Procurement Proclamation.

The report, “Diagnosing Corruption in Ethiopia”, in its subtopic that assessed the level of corruption in the telecom sector also stated that absence of uniform procurement standards is one of the major causes of corruption, among others.

The report highlighted that the vendor financing contract entered into by the then ETC (Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation now named Ethio Telecom) in 2006 appears to be highly unusual. “…This brief study should not be seen as an investigation or interpreted as alleging in itself that corruption has necessarily occurred. However, the circumstances as perceived both by stakeholders and by independent observers do raise serious questions about the control of risks in this sector.”

The stakeholders of the then 1.5 billion US dollars vendor financing argue that ETC’s financial requirements were not provided in detail to those suppliers (other than possibly the winning supplier –China’s ZTE) that had been approached to consider providing such financing. The report also stated that there is no evidence of a formal tender procedure for the finance package.

“The supplier selected by the ETC to supply the finance package that suited the ETC’s purposes. The equipment supply element of the vendor financing contract was not put out to competitive tender.”
The report stated that generally the contract was not in accordance with the ETC’s procurement procedure and no competitive tender for the contract and subcontracts.

“Difficulty in measuring technical compliance: By appointing one supplier without competitive tender, the ETC has no opportunity to assess the degree of technical compliance of the supplier’s equipment. The contract was also inappropriate and went through unclear procedures for ensuring technical quality and competitive pricing,” according to the report.

In addition, the report further mentioned that Ethio Telecom is vulnerable to corruption because it is under government monopoly.

Health, education, water, justice, construction, land and mining are also the sectors surveyed by the report sponsored by the World Bank, Canada International Development Agency, UK Aid and the government of the Netherlands.

“Some of the recommendations of the report are under implementation,” said Ali Suleman, Commissioner of the Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC).  While the report also recalled that in January 2008, the FEACC 2008 brought charges against a former ETC CEO and 26 former ETC executives for allegedly “procuring low-quality equipment from companies that were supposed to be rejected on the basis of procurement regulations.”

World Bank country Director, Guang Zhe Chen, on his part stressed that the purpose of the study is conducted to support evidence-based policy formation.

Liberia: President Sirleaf Raps On Progress Against Malaria


October 1, 2012

President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has disclosed that there has been unprecedented success in scaling up malaria control, with a 33 percent decrease in malaria deaths in Africa over the last decade.President Sirleaf said however, the current global funding crisis threatens this progress and the achievement of the health MDGs – Goals 4, 5 and 6.

“Our national malaria control programs have completed comprehensive programmatic and financial gap analyses, detailing a $3.7 billion gap in the finances needed to sustain universal coverage of essential malaria interventions to the end of 2015 in Africa,” President Sirleaf said.

“I speak on behalf of the 44 ALMA Heads of State and Government. As the world begins discussions on the post-2015 development framework, African leaders understand that we have a three-year window to leverage every resource to ensure that we achieve the health goals for our people and to develop plans to sustain the gains,” she said.

President Sirleaf said in the coming months, the High-Level Panel, which she has the honor to co-Chair with British Prime Minister David Cameron and Indonesian President Susilo Yudhoyono, will lay the groundwork for a global post-2015 agenda with shared responsibilities for all countries and with the fight against poverty and for sustainable development at its core.

“This new agenda must build on the successes that will have been achieved during the MDG era,” she added.

President Sirleaf who is Chairman of the African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA) was speaking at the United Nations Secretary General‘s Every Woman Every Child Dinner held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York recently.

President Sirleaf said over the summer, African leaders rallied and decided that they will be at the forefront of The Big Push to 2015.

In this vein, President Sirleaf said African leaders have decided that it was important to call upon their bilateral, private sector, NGO, CBO, foundation and Development Bank partners to keep their commitments to global health. “They have done a great job thus far, but more is needed because the whole world benefits when our people thrive,” she averred.

She said African leaders have also decided to ensure value for money across all aspects of prevention and treatment which means full transparency and accountability and realizing efficiencies wherever they can be found.

She said ALMA has worked, over the past years with the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) to model sustained financing plans and to look at financial management best practices.

“We support the roll-out of procurement efficiencies, such as pooled procurement, standardization of net specifications and local manufacture of anti-malarial commodities. By doing so, we can save hundreds of millions of dollars. Uganda, for example, saved $17 million by standardizing mosquito net specifications and opting for pooled procurement,” the Liberian leader said.

She said African leaders have also decided to increase domestic resources from the public and private sectors, key elements of The Big Push to 2015 and beyond while committing to allocate 15 percent of public sector funds to health…Read more.

Cameroon Palm Oil Plantation Withdraws Sustainability Application

Pratap ChatterjeeCorpWatch Blog

September 6th, 2012

A subsidiary of Herakles Capital, a New York based investment firm, has decided to cancel its application to join the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) after environmental groups alleged that its 73,086 hectare project in southwestern Cameroon would threaten the sustainability of the local community.

In 2009, the SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon, Ltd. (SGSOC), which is wholly owned by Herakles Capital, acquired a 99 year lease to land in Ndian and Kupe-Manenguba divisions where it drew up plans for a $350 million palm oil plantation. (Herakles Capital has several other investments in Africa such as the Bujagali dam in Uganda, the Boke Alumina Project in the Republic of Guinea and an East African undersea fiber-optic project.)

“From its very name, American-owned SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon, Ltd. (SGSOC) presents a pro-environment, pro-resources image,” writes Frederic Mousseau, policy director of the Oakland Institute in California in a new report released this week. “(But it) is also part of a strategy to deceive the public into believing that there is logic to cutting down rainforests to make room for palm oil plantations.”

SGSOC has gone to great lengths to convince the public that it is socially responsible. “Our project, should it proceed, will be a big project with big impacts – environmentally and socially,” Herakles CEO Bruce Wrobel wrote to the Oakland Institute in July 2011. “The big question – and the real story – is whether it ends up strongly positive or strongly negative. I couldn’t be more convinced that this will be an amazingly positive story for the people within our impact area.”

In addition to Herakles, Wrobel operates a non-profit dedicated to poverty reduction named “All for Africa” that boasts board members like Nigerian-American actor Gbenga Akinnagbe who shot to fame in The Wire, a U.S. TV series, and the film: The Taking of Pelham 123.

And SGSOC also applied to join the international Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), which has signed up 779 members and associates including almost every major industry player in the world, in an effort to burnish its social responsibility credentials.

Indeed RSPO was created in 2004 to address the numerous clashes over palm plantations around the world with the help of non-government organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund which helped set up the organization.
But the palm oil industry – which produces 50 million tons of edible oils and biofuels a year – remains deeply controversial.

As CorpWatch writer Melody Kemp noted in her recent article for us “Green Deserts: The Palm Oil Conflict” the plantation companies make money in two ways: First they clear cut and sell the existing high-value trees, burning the residue. The haze from those forest fires has interrupted regional air traffic and caused severe respiratory illnesses in countries like Indonesia, Malaysia as well as Singapore. Then the companies plant the spiky oil palms trees, creating vast, eerily silent monoculture plantations.

Activists have sparked a raging debate over the industry, faulting palm oil for contributing significantly to carbon dioxide and methane emissions, the loss of biodiversity and precious carbon sequestering forests, land subsidence, poverty, and for exacerbating starvation resulting from land appropriation.

The very same problems have been predicted in an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) conducted by SGSOC itself. The company assessment suggested that the negative impact of the plantation on livelihoods will be “major” and “long-term.”

Nor is the Herakles investment the most efficient way to support the local economy, according to a report by on the SGSOC deal by two Cameroonian NGOs, the Centre for Environment and Development (CED) and Réseau de Lutte contre la Faim (RELUFA). The groups calculated that the government of Cameroon could generate 13 times more employment and significantly larger tax revenue if it were to require local bread-makers to use 20 percent locally produced flour (derived from sweet potatoes, corn or cassava), using just 15,000 hectares of land.

Local farmers and politicians are especially skeptical of SGSOC because palm oil plantations are not new to the region. Beginning in 1927, companies like Pamol have operated similar projects for decades. “Plantation jobs have always been modern day slavery,” says Joshua Osih of the Social Democratic Front, Cameroon’s main opposition party, in an interview for the film “The Herakles Debacle” just released by the Oakland Institute. “We’ve seen a lot of industrial plantations develop around this area and nothing, absolutely nothing, has happened positively to the population.”

“Everybody here is self employed,” Okie Bonaventure Ekoko, a cocoa farmer from Mboko village told the film maker Franck Bieleu. “There is no advantages that the people here will have (from Herakles investments). We don’t need them, we are fine.”

“And if they come and say they want to take this land from us, we are not ready for it,” says Esoh Sylvanus Asui, a farmer from Bombe Konye village. “We will fight and we will die for our land.”

In May 2011, some 50 local and international environmental and community groups wrote a letter to Wrobel expressing concern. In March 2012 a number of the same groups lodged a formal complaint against Herakles with the RSPO alleging that Herakles’ project violated Cameroonian laws and noted that it “would disrupt the ecological landscape and migration routes of protected species.” Meanwhile local farmers have begun to organize against the project. On June 6, 2012, villagers from Fabe and Toko held a protest against the plantation during the visit of the local governor.

On August 24 2012, Herakles withdrew its application to the RSPO.

“The RSPO regrets this withdrawal of membership by Herakles Farms,” the organization said in a brief statement posted to its website. “This action pre-empts recommendations from the RSPO Complaints Panel to further verify the allegations made by the complainants.”

The company did not respond to requests for comment from the media.

SA pioneers malaria breakthrough

Southern Times

By Gabriel Manyati

August 31, 2012

Johannesburg – A drug that has the potential to treat malaria has been pioneered by researchers at the University of Cape Town (UCT) in South Africa.

It is the first time a potential cure has been developed on African soil.

New malaria drugs are urgently needed, as there is there is growing resistance to existing treatments and no effective vaccine to protect people from infection.

Malaria is a huge killer in many other parts of the continent: one in four child deaths in Africa south of the Sahara is due to malaria; and the disease reduces the region’s GDP by an estimated US$12 billion a year.

In South Africa, malaria killed 89 people and affected another 9 866 last year, according to the Department of Health.

Malaria is transmitted by infected mosquitoes, with children and pregnant women being the most susceptible to it.

According to the World Health Organisation, there are an estimated 300 million acute cases of malaria globally each year.

And now a potential breakthrough has been made in South Africa.

“This is truly a proud day for African science and African scientists. Our team is hopeful that the compound will emerge from rigorous testing as an extremely effective medicine for malaria,” said Professor Kelly Chibale, the founder and director of the UCT’s Drug Development and Discovery Centre (H3-D).

It has been hailed as evidence that South Africa is pioneering advancements in the medical field.

The candidate drug, from a class of compounds called aminopyridines, was identified by a team led by Prof Kelly Chibale, working in collaboration with the nonprofit Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).

The candidate drug, called MMV390048, has so far only been tested on rodents but the results are promising: it appears to be stable and safe, is effective against a variety of strains of the malaria parasite, and requires only a single dose to cure the animals of malaria, Prof Chibale said.

A single-dose cure would be ideal, because it would do away with the problem of people not finishing a course of treatment. If patients stop taking medication because they feel well again but before the parasite has been killed, it gives the parasite an opportunity to develop resistance to the drug.

The drug stays in the body for a long time, preventing regrowth of the parasite, which means it has the potential to block transmission of the parasite from one person to another, he said.

The compound has been patented, and research into its effects on malaria-infected rodents was published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry in March.

It has been selected by MMV’s scientific advisory committee for further clinical research. The next step will be to test its safety in a small group of healthy human volunteers in a phase one clinical trial.

The aim is to produce a drug that costs less than US$1 a day, so that it will be affordable to Africans, said Dr Leslie Street, head of medicinal chemistry and principal research officer at H3-D.

Even if all goes well with the clinical research, a new drug could still be three to five years down the road, he cautioned.

It is not clear at this stage whether the phase one trial will be carried out in South Africa, said Richard Gordon, regional representative for MMV, as there is limited local capacity to do this highly-specialised work.

Further work is also needed to identify a suitable company to manufacture MMV390048 in suitable quantities for the clinical trials.

Prof Chibale and his colleagues worked with scientists from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, the Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation at Australia’s Monash University and India’s Syngene to home in on the candidate drug.

Their work was given a kick-start by researchers at Griffith University in Australia, who screened about six million compounds to identify the aminopyradine series from which MMV390048 was isolated.

Swaziland: Nurses join public sector strike

Swaziland Media

By Richard Rodney

July 17th, 2012

Nurses are to join teachers and civil servants in the growing public sector strike in Swaziland.
They will strike from tomorrow (18 July 2012) in pursuit of a 4.5 percent salary increase.
Teachers have been on indefinite strike for nearly a month and civil servants joined them last week.
Members of the Swaziland Democratic Nurses Union (SWADNU) are expected to strike for two days and then review the situation.
Swaziland has been in turmoil in recent weeks as police on several occasions attacked peacefully protesting strikers, using rubber bullets, teargas and batons. The rough handling by the police has been condemned by trade unionists across the world.
Nurses said they would to join the strike, but they are undecided about whether to hold a public protest. Some said they feared attacks from police if they did so.

IBM Experts Deliver Recommendations to Ghana Ministry of Health for Increasing Access to More Affordable Health Care

Market Watch


May 14th, 2012

ACCRA, Ghana, May 14, 2012 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ — A team of IBM‘s experts has presented the Ghana Ministry of Health with a forward-looking blueprint to provide all Ghanaians with access to health care, while also improving the availability of medicines and reducing their cost. The blueprint included recommendations for mechanisms to provide more timely and detailed information to decision makers.

The IBM team, comprising 12 individuals drawn from nine countries, was in Ghana as part of IBM’s pro-bono Corporate Service Corps program, in which IBM deploys teams of top employees to municipalities and countries to work on projects that intersect business, technology and society. The engagement in Ghana was coordinated with USAID, the government agency that provides U.S. economic and humanitarian assistance worldwide. IBM is also working with USAID to help other companies develop international volunteerism programs.

The Ghanaian health sector has faced various challenges, including weak logistical data, poor visibility and insight into medical data, limited medical product availability and quality, uneven planning and coordination, and occasional misalignment of health objectives and incentives. This is largely a result of a strongly decentralizing sector, leading to fragmented coordination.

An initial review of the health sector in June 2011 prompted the Ministry of Health to develop a five-year master plan aimed at addressing existing supply chain limitations. The plan recommended that the Ministry of Health establish a centralised “Supply Chain Management Unit,” an administrative body that could potentially link the public and private health sectors to establish efficiencies within the national health supply chain — the system of planners, suppliers, deliverers, and providers that ensure the cost effective and timely availability of medicines.

The IBM team of experts arrived in Ghana in mid-April and was tasked with assessing and addressing the factors involved in improving the system that manages this supply chain. The team was also asked to explore the costs and information technology requirements for establishing an automated logistics system, which will ensure the right medicines will be ordered, shipped, delivered, received and available at the right time. Such a system would also enable stakeholders, such as health care administrators, to view the underlying logistics processes so planning and adjustments can be simplified.

Key IBM recommendations were threefold. They included the recommendation of a system for informed decision making based on identifying and managing risks at critical control points. This will enable the Ministry of Health to base decisions on known and qualified risks and minimize surprises and “management by crisis.” The team also recommended that a highly accessible and visible cost model be established to enable managers to identify costly medical products and services. This will provide a clear understanding of the total cost of the supply chain in order to build in efficiencies within the system.

Finally, IBM developed a high level blueprint for building an information system supporting the delivery of medicines within the healthcare system.

“With this health sector Supply Chain Management Unit, Ghana hopes to serve as a model for many countries in Africa and other emerging markets faced with similar challenges,” said Mr. Samuel Boateng, the Director of Procurement for the Ministry of Health.

“The Supply Chain Management Unit framework suggested by the IBM experts will go far in securing increased access to essential medicines and health care by Ghanaians,” said Joe Mensah, IBM Country General Manager for Ghana. “An enhanced supply chain management system will lead to overall affordable and quality healthcare provided by the Government of Ghana to its citizens.”

IBM’s Corporate Service Corps is a global IBM initiative designed to provide small businesses, educational institutions and non-profit organizations in growth markets with sophisticated business consulting and skills development to help improve local conditions and foster job creation. IBM deploys teams of top employees from around the world representing information technology, research, marketing, finance, consulting, human resources, legal and business development to growth markets for a period of one month.

Since the launch of Corporate Service Corps in 2008, nearly 1,500 IBM employees based in 50 countries have been dispatched on more than 150 team assignments in 30 countries. Africa is a focus continent for IBM’s volunteerism programs. Since 2008, IBM’s Corporate Service Corps has deployed more than 500 IBM employees on approximately 44 teams to South Africa, Tanzania, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, and Egypt.

For more information on IBM Corporate Citizenship, please visit

For more information about IBM Corporate Service Corps, please visit

For more information and resources companies can use to develop international volunteerism programs, please visit the Centre of Excellence for International Corporate Volunteerism at

Media Inquiries:

Ari Fishkind IBM Media Relations 914-499-6420

Vera RosauerIBM External +254-737-537-030

Marie-Anne KinyanjuiIBM External


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