Published by the government of Zimbabwe
By Gertrude R. Takawira
12 September 2011
It has rendered to naught brilliant economic reforms. Most people hate it. A few benefit from it. Yet corruption is strong enough to have replaced traditional economic ethos of capital and production. No wonder the economic crises.
Like economics there is a supply-side and demand-side for corruption. The supply-side or the giver resides in businesses. Businesses pay the bribes. The demand side or taker is predominantly government officials.
In a survey carried out by the African Capital Markets Forum in Ghana during the year 2000, it was reported that 86 percent of households saw corruption as a major problem in the public sector, whereas 59 percent of households saw corruption as a major problem in the private sector.
It was also found that many firms in Ghana made unofficial payments (44 percent) to public officials with over a quarter (27 percent) frequently or always making such payments. Unofficial payments constituted a regular feature of transactions between business firms and public service agencies. 56 percent of firms reported that service was frequently delivered once they made an unofficial payment… Why then do corporations with good corporate governance systems pay bribes? First there has to be a conducive atmosphere for the supply and demand of bribery. This can take place in broad ranges of business activities over which some government officials hold discretionary powers.
Common among these are; where firms bribe public officials to avoid or reduce tax, to secure public procurement contracts, to bypass laws and regulations, or to block the entry of potential competitors.
On the surface bribery seems to be cost-effective for businesses because bribe payment is often a fraction of the monetary value of the services rendered by the corrupt officials.
The reason to bribe becomes even more compelling when public officials hold the power to punish the firms for not paying the bribe, such as revoking business licenses. Corporates are often duped to believe that the only cost of bribery is paying the government officials… Read more.